It takes more than good intentions to transform the South. It takes money.

What the hell is a Scalawag?

Editors' note: The militarization of police is a global enterprise. This story was originally published on May 10, 2018, three weeks after local organizers won the first city resolution against international police exchanges in the nation that prevents police officers from receiving military-style training in Israel. We're republishing this success story now in support of the South's legacy of intersectional solidarity with Palestine, dating back to the Civil Rights Movement. Over the last 20 years, Israel has trained thousands of American police forces, Immigration and Customs Enforcement agents, and military units, feeding an exchange of tactics used by United States forces against Black and Brown people both at home and abroad. We hope many more cities around the country follow Durham's lead.

On April 16, 2018, Durham, North Carolina became the first city in the country to ban local police exchanges with Israel when the city council unanimously passed a resolution opposing any international "military-style" training for police officers.

Southern solidarity with Palestine has deep precedent. In the aftermath of the 1967 war that began the longest standing military occupation in history, just three years after Mississippi's lionized Freedom Summer student actions of 1964, Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee members Stokely Carmichael (who later changed his name to Kwame Ture) and Ethel Minor published a two-page article in the SNCC newsletter titled, "Third World Round-up: The Palestine Problem."

In this controversial article, they describe Zionism as a form of settler colonialism, a global injustice that necessitated solidarity with displaced Palestinians. They argue that the occupation of Palestine wasn't a faraway tragedy disconnected from their political realities in the South.

SNCC members believed oppressive policies in Palestine are directly connected to the lived experiences of Black and Brown people all over the world. In a 2012 interview with Democracy Now!, poet and novelist Alice Walker—herself born the daughter of sharecroppers in Eatonton, Georgia—compared systemic oppression in Palestine to Jim Crow. "Wherever you see people who are being humiliated it is our duty as human beings… to speak."

In 2014, Southern organizers celebrated the 50th anniversary of SNCC's Freedom Summer. The anniversary coincided with a bloody Israeli military operation in Gaza, "Operation Protective Edge," that led to the deaths of over 2,000 Palestinians.

See also: Birmingham increases police budget by $11.2M despite demands to defund: 'People literally cannot breathe, and it's not because of George Floyd'

"The same summer I watched the documentary about Freedom Summer in Mississippi, I learned about the struggles of Palestine," said Ajamu Amiri Dillahunt, a member of Black Youth Project 100 and a student at North Carolina Central University, a historically Black university in Durham.

"As I've been raised into the movement, solidarity with the struggles of oppressed peoples across the world has always been the story taught to me, that we can't get free without each other."

Dillahunt was one of many organizers who helped build the  Demilitarize! Durham2Palestine coalition, an affiliate of the Deadly Exchange Campaign, urging city officials to ban police exchanges between Durham and Israel. He cited SNCC's 1967 solidarity statement as part of his inspiration.

"[What] brought me to the campaign is being grounded in history and being inspired by SNCC, as a young Black student organizer in the South," he said.

He also cites a deep legacy of intersectional and internationalist solidarity coming out of the South.

"There's a photo from 2010 where I'm 12 years old and I'm pushing my great-grandfather in a wheelchair at a rally, and I later learned that my grandparents had brought me to a Palestine liberation rally in Durham. As I've been raised into the movement, solidarity with the struggles of oppressed peoples across the world has always been the story taught to me, that we can't get free without each other."

Noah Rubin-Blose of Jewish Voice for Peace lights a candle commemorating those killed in Gaza during protests against Israel's ongoing occupation.

The Demilitarize! Durham2Palestine coalition also did not emerge overnight. Beth Bruch, a member of Jewish Voice for Peace and an organizer with the campaign said that in the wake of the Black Lives Matter Movement and the high-profile murders of Black people across the country, the coalition chose to highlight the intensifying entanglements between militarized Israeli and U.S. police practices.

"We saw these police exchanges with Israel as an opportunity to oppose militarization of police in Durham and to oppose brutality happening in Palestine," she said. "We know police officers in St. Louis, Ferguson, Chicago, and other cities have participated in these exchanges, which translate into horrible surveillance practices and violent police tactics."

See also: The old devil and the new details—A veteran organizer's long-view on right-wing militia organizing in the South

The coalition of 10 local organizations built and coordinated the campaign over two years, and presented a petition with nearly 1,400 signatures to Durham City Council on April 16, 2018. Their proposed policy resolution that "the Council opposes international exchanges with any country in which Durham officers receive military-style training," passed 6-0.

Thousands of U.S. police and border patrol officers, including ICE and FBI agents, have traveled to Israel to be trained by Israeli police and military forces since the early 2000s.

During a heated discussion at City Hall, opponents of the resolutions expressed confusion over the policy's relevance to Durham, or said they opposed what they saw as unfair targeting of Israel.

"There are real problems facing this city, and the Palestinian situation is not one of them," Richard Ford of the Friends of Durham political action committee said during the public comment period. Durham Mayor Steve Schewel also expressed dismay at what he said were false rumors that Durham had plans to send its police to Israel for training.

Organizers had good reason to wonder if Durham would pursue such training. Jose Lopez, who served as Durham's police chief from 2007 to 2015, had participated in a police exchange program in Israel through the Anti-Defamation League. Durham's next chief of police, C.J. Davis, also helped establish and run an exchange program with Israel through the Atlanta Police Leadership Institute as a high-ranking officer in Atlanta.

"Everyone feels like we have the same self-interest when these struggles are connected to each other."

In 2003, the Anti-Defamation League began to invite American law enforcement executives to Israel to participate in a weeklong counterterrorism seminar. Since the beginning of the exchange program, according to the ADL, "more than 200 law enforcement executives have participated… representing close to 100 different federal, state and local agencies across the country."

Critics of police exchanges argue that they encourage racially biased and violent policing.

Durham has previously taken explicit stances on issues of international justice. In 1981, the city council issued a boycott resolution in opposition to South African Apartheid, stating: "Whereas the Durham City Council recognizes the equality of all humanity, the inherent right to human dignity, and the entitlement of all persons to equal treatment under the law."

Many today consider the military occupation in Palestine a contemporary form of apartheid, and one that might be possible to defeat by employing similar tactics of mass nonviolent resistance, such as "Boycott, Divestment, and Sanctions." In 2014, as part of the BDS movement, Durham activists with Jewish Voice for Peace won an agreement from Durham County to end its contract with G4S, a British security company that was involved in prison and military equipment operations in Israel.

Samer Abu Sharif sings before the rally on April 16, 2018. The resolution later passed 6-0, making Durham the first city in the country to ban the practice.

Demilitarize! Durham2Palestine frames militarized policing as an intersectional issue affecting many local communities, says organizer Ihab Mikati. "We have in our coalition people who are prison abolitionists, and Muslim social justice groups, and folks who are advocating for Black lives," he said, echoing the international solidarity sentiments of Walker and Carmichael. "Everyone feels like we have the same self-interest when these struggles are connected to each other."

Some at the council meeting expressed a fear that Durham's resolution may be perceived as anti-Semitic. But members of Jewish Voice for Peace, one of the anchoring organizations for the campaign in Durham, say it's because of their Jewish faith that they feel a sense of obligation to Palestinian solidarity.

"I have Jewish family members who were displaced from Germany right before World War II," Bruch said. "It is because of this history that I do this solidarity organizing… I have to speak out and fight this brutality as a way of honoring my ancestors who resisted oppression in order to be true to my conscience."

In a world where capital moves more rapidly and freely than ever before, while security and border militarization technologies have become more advanced and more entrenched, local conditions cannot be extracted from the global matrix of power and racialized violence.

See also: The Jewish South is Black, too

In 2017, Elta North America, an Israeli-owned defense manufacturer, was one of four corporations chosen to help build a prototype for the border wall between the U.S. and Mexico. The future of challenging racially stratified police practices at home and abroad will depend on the ability of community members to tell compelling stories about why our fates across borders are intertwined.

"I return often to Nelson Mandela saying that our freedom is incomplete without the freedom of Palestine." Dillahunt said. "I like to uplift those revolutionary Black leaders who supported Palestine as a tool to help mobilize Black people to speak up, for all of us."

More in organizing

Abolition made practical

Three Southern organizations making their communities safer and more sustainable—without prisons.

Zaina Alsous

Zaina Alsous is an editor at Scalawag magazine, a movement worker in South Florida, and the author of A Theory of Birds (University of Arkansas Press).

Sammy Hanf

Sammy Hanf is a freelance journalist based in Durham, North Carolina.